Travel Gear

Nikon 18-35mm f3.5-4.5 G Review (Awesome Wide Lens!)

NIKON 18-35MM F3.5-4.5 G REVIEW (AWESOME WIDE LENS!)

There are two lenses I don't think I could live without, and the Nikon AF-S 18-35mm f3.5-4.5 G is definitely one of them (the other is any good 70-200mm). I don't often review gear on this blog because there's so much out there already on every piece of photo equipment imaginable, but there's only a few good reviews on this beautiful lens. When I bought it in 2015, all that was out there in internet land was one good article and a video from legendary nature photographer Moose Peterson raving about it. I thought I'd carve out some time, now that I've had two years to use it, to talk about this awesome wide-angle zoom and why it's not being traded or sold for as long as I shoot Nikon. 

I've put 1,000s of shots through the Nikon 18-35G and have taken it on all my trips since the winter of 2015. It's been my main super-wide angle lens in Iceland (twice), Boston, Sweden, North Carolina's mountains and beaches, and the Canadian Rockies. It's lightweight, well-made, sharp, works with 77mm filter systems with no vignetting, and shows very little distortion or chromatic aberration. I'm not going to talk about the specs much, instead I'll mainly touch on why I like this lens so much and why it's always in my bag. I'd also like to share some of my favorite images that I've made using this lens. If you want boring old charts and graphs, pictures of brick walls and stuffed animals, or side by side comparisons with other lenses, you should probably go elsewhere. To borrow the words of Moose Peterson, "I'm not a chart photographer." 

Nikon AF-S 18-35mm f3.5-4.5 G wide angle lens on a D600

Nikon AF-S 18-35mm f3.5-4.5 G wide angle lens on a D600

technical specs:

Mount: Nikon F-Bayonet
Focal Length Range: 18-35mm
Zoom Ratio: 1.9 x
Maximum Aperture: f/ 3.5
Minimum Aperture: f/ 22-29
Format: FX / 35mm
Maximum Angle of View (FX-format): 100°
Minimum Angle of View (FX-format): 63°
Maximum Reproduction Ratio: 0.2 x
Lens Elements: 12
Lens Groups: 8
Compatible Format(s): FX,  DX , 35mm Film
Diaphragm Blades: 7
Distance Information: Yes
ED Glass Elements: 2
Aspherical Elements: 3
Super Integrated Coating: Yes
Autofocus: Yes
AF-S (Silent Wave Motor): Yes
Internal Focusing: Yes
Minimum Focus Distance: 0.92  ft. ( 0.28 m) 
Focus Mode: Manual , Manual/Auto
G-type: Yes
Filter Size: 77mm
Accepts Filter Type: Screw-on
Approx. Dimensions (Diameter x Length): (83mm) (95mm)
Approx. Weight: 13.6 oz. (385 g)

pros:

- Lightweight and durable poly-carbonate construction
- Weather-sealed
- Produces very sharp images with little to no color fringing or distortion
- Sharp at all apertures and focal lengths (especially around f8 - f13 for landscapes)
- Relatively inexpensive at $500-700 USD
- Works great with Lee and Nisi 77mm polarizers and filter systems
- Compact size fits in any camera backpack
- 18-35mm FX zoom range remains versatile even on a DX sensor body (equivalent to ~28-52mm)
- Fast autofocus with manual override
- Very close minimum focus distance
 

cons:

Racking my brain here... For me there are none really. If two extra millimeters was essential, then the more expensive, larger, and heavier Nikon 16-35mm G might be a good choice. It's considered a "pro lens" (though I'm technically a professional and use the 18-35G). The difference in 16mm and 18mm on a full frame camera is like taking one step backward, so that's not worth the $400 price difference to me. In all honesty, I can't think of a reason not to recommend this lens, especially to the weight-conscious travel photographer. The only negative I can think of is that it's difficult to find this lens in used condition because people that own it like it so much.

In The Field:

Here are a few of my favorite images made with the Nikon 18-35G. I purchased mine new on eBay from a trusted North American seller with the standard 1 year warrantee. I would also recommend purchasing it on AmazonB&H, or Henry's for my Canadian readers. Always shop around for the best price and remember plane tickets are better than gear. Thanks for reading and happy travels!

Peyto Lake, Banff National Park (Nikon D600, 18-35G : 29mm, ISO100, f13, 1/6 sec, tripod, polarizer, 3 stop grad. ND)

Peyto Lake, Banff National Park (Nikon D600, 18-35G : 29mm, ISO100, f13, 1/6 sec, tripod, polarizer, 3 stop grad. ND)

Sunwapta Falls, Jasper National Park (Nikon D7100, 18-35G : 18mm, ISO 100, f11, 8 sec, tripod, polarizer, 3 stop grad. ND, 6 stop ND)

Sunwapta Falls, Jasper National Park (Nikon D7100, 18-35G : 18mm, ISO 100, f11, 8 sec, tripod, polarizer, 3 stop grad. ND, 6 stop ND)

Intracoastal Waterway, Calabash, N.C. (Nikon D600, 18-35G : 35mm, ISO 100, f8, 2.5 sec, tripod)

Intracoastal Waterway, Calabash, N.C. (Nikon D600, 18-35G : 35mm, ISO 100, f8, 2.5 sec, tripod)

Old Town Stockholm, Sweden (Nikon D600, 18-35G : 18mm, ISO 400, f8, 1/100 sec, handheld)

Old Town Stockholm, Sweden (Nikon D600, 18-35G : 18mm, ISO 400, f8, 1/100 sec, handheld)

Dyrholaey, Iceland (Nikon D600, 18-35G : 35mm, ISO 100, f10, 3 sec, tripod, polarizer, 6 stop ND)

Dyrholaey, Iceland (Nikon D600, 18-35G : 35mm, ISO 100, f10, 3 sec, tripod, polarizer, 6 stop ND)

Kirkjufellsfoss, Iceland (Nikon D600, 18-35G : 26mm, ISO 100, f14, 1/4 sec, tripod, polarizer)

Kirkjufellsfoss, Iceland (Nikon D600, 18-35G : 26mm, ISO 100, f14, 1/4 sec, tripod, polarizer)

For the full list of the photography gear I use, click here.

Nikon 28-105mm AF-D Macro - Cheap Lens Review (with image samples!)

Nikon 28-105mm f3.5-4.5 AF-D Macro

Nikon 28-105mm f3.5-4.5 AF-D Macro

I'm not huge on gear reviews to be completely honest. I believe that there is way too much emphasis on products and not enough on technique and vision when it comes to photography in the 21st century. I'm not a "pixel-peeper" and care more about the feeling of an image and the story it tells than the technical info that accompanies it. This isn't going to be one of those insanely technical reviews with sharpness comparisons and fancy charts and graphs. That stuff bores me to death. I don't see the need to review all the cool stuff I use for photography, but when I come across a piece of equipment that impresses me and allows me to accomplish various things for an affordable price, it's definitely worth sharing. The Nikon 28-105mm f3.5-4.5 AF-D Macro is a versatile lens for an affordable price.

My two most used lenses are the Nikkor 18-35G and Nikkor 70-200 f2.8 VR II. I can get 80-90% of the images I need using those two super sharp lenses. They cover a wide range of focal length and are useful for a wide range of subjects, but what about the middle zone? There was a gap in my kit from 35mm to 70mm (aside from the 50mm 1.8G I own, that is). I was considering more expensive (yet fantastic) options like the Nikon 24-120 F4 VR or the 24-70 f2.8, but didn't see myself actually using either of those enough to justify spending one or two thousand bucks (remember kids - I'd rather buy plane tickets than gear). The cheaper "kit" lenses like Nikon's 24-85 VR were tempting, too, but they didn't turn me on as much. There is a Nikon 35-70mm f2.8D, but I'm not a fan of push-pull zooms. I remembered that my photography instructor back in college (David Hessell) said that one of his favorite lenses back in "the day" was the Nikon 28-105 AF-D. I checked out the specs and his images and concluded that this lens could be the right fit for me. Heading over to eBay, I found several excellent condition options for less than $150! A steal! I forked over a whole $100 to Roberts Camera's eBay store for one and haven't looked back. 

TECH SPECS:

  • Focal Length: 28-105mm

  • Maximum Aperture Range: f3.4-f4.5

  • Minimum Aperture Range: f22-f29

  • Field of View on Full Frame: 74 - 23 Degrees

  • Weight: 1.0031 lbs

  • Dimensions: 84 x 72mm (120 x 72mm zoomed out)

  • Optics: 16 elements in 12 groups (1 aspherical)

  • Aperture Blades: 9

  • Filter Thread: 62mm

  • Minimum Focus Distance: 1.7 feet, 0.7 feet in Macro Mode

  • Mount: Nikon F (metal)

  • Maximum Magnification: 1:2 at 105mm

  • Construction: Metal Innards, Tough Plastic Outside, with Rubber Zoom and Focus Rings

The Nikon 28-105mm AF-D Macro focuses as close as 1 inch from the front element when macro mode is engaged.

The Nikon 28-105mm AF-D Macro focuses as close as 1 inch from the front element when macro mode is engaged.

PROS:

  • Sharp where it counts

  • Great build-quality (made in Japan)

  • Excellent close-focus / macro capabilities from 50mm-105mm

  • Compact and lightweight (great walk-around travel lens)

  • Cost only $100-150 USD used

  • Good color saturation and contrast

  • Fast auto-focus

  • Covers a hugely versatile focal range from 28mm-105mm

  • Great minimum aperture range from f3.5-f4.5

CONS:

  • Light vignetting at widest and narrowest apertures (almost none at 70mm and 105mm at f8-f11)

  • Slight distortion at 28mm (still better than most wide-zooms)

  • Can get some flare at 28mm without hood

  • Gets physically longer as it zooms

  • No manual focus override (you can't focus manually while in autofocus mode - characteristic of older lenses)

  • No Vibration Reduction (this doesn't bother me, particularly)

  • 62mm filter thread (does not match my 77mm lenses, so new filters are necessary)

Sunrise and Storm Clouds over Mountains and Marsh, East Iceland (Nikon D600, Nikon 28-105mm AF-D, 28mm, f11, 1/4 sec, ISO 100, tripod)

Sunrise and Storm Clouds over Mountains and Marsh, East Iceland (Nikon D600, Nikon 28-105mm AF-D, 28mm, f11, 1/4 sec, ISO 100, tripod)

This lens is perfect for travel. It's light and it's focal range covers a vast range, allowing me to shoot a variety of subjects without changing lenses. 28mm is wide enough for most situations while that 50mm to 105mm range with macro allows me to get in super-close and tight when I need to. At around $100 USD it's a wonder to me why it's not in everyone's bag. 

The Nikon 28-105 AF-D Macro was released 1999 as sort of a kit lens with the Nikon F100 35mm camera (which I also own and love). In my opinion, it beats the crap out of those all plastic 18-55's that entry level DSLRs come with today. Those can be sharp, but flimsy. Sure it's an older model, with no VR and no M/A switch, but it holds its own when it comes to versatility. If you've used super-fast "G" series lenses, you'll notice that this older "D" lens autofucuses slightly slower, but it's not slow enough to notice unless you're comparing it side by side with a newer lens. For me, it's a great all around travel and nature lens, allowing me to get closer to small subjects than my more expensive zooms. When I don't need the reach of my 70-200mm and don't need to take in a wider landscape with my 18-35mm, this is the lens I use these days. Just pop it on the camera and go!

More Image Samples:

Spring's First Flowers, Creston, North Carolina. These blooms are about the size of a U.S. dime. (Nikon D7100, Nikon 28-105mm AF-D, macro switched on, 90mm, f5.6, 1/100 sec, ISO 100, tripod)

Spring's First Flowers, Creston, North Carolina. These blooms are about the size of a U.S. dime. (Nikon D7100, Nikon 28-105mm AF-D, macro switched on, 90mm, f5.6, 1/100 sec, ISO 100, tripod)

Double Daffodil (Nikon D7100, Nikon 28-105mm AF-D, macro switched on, 105mm, f9, 0.4 sec, ISO 100, tripod)

Double Daffodil (Nikon D7100, Nikon 28-105mm AF-D, macro switched on, 105mm, f9, 0.4 sec, ISO 100, tripod)

Carolina Anole (Nikon D600, Nikon 28-105mm AF-D, macro switch on, 105mm, f6.3, 1/320 sec, ISO 1000, hand held)

Carolina Anole (Nikon D600, Nikon 28-105mm AF-D, macro switch on, 105mm, f6.3, 1/320 sec, ISO 1000, hand held)

Check the Nikon 28-105 AF-D price on Amazon.

For my full photography gear list, click here!

Packing List For Iceland (Winter Photography)

Icelandic weather can be quite treacherous, especially during winter. Here are a few essentials I'll be packing for my March 2017 trip (not everything is pictured).

Icelandic weather can be quite treacherous, especially during winter. Here are a few essentials I'll be packing for my March 2017 trip (not everything is pictured).

Rough Itinerary: 

I'm very excited to be returning to Iceland for the third time! I'll be visiting some new locations, as well as some that I've been to before (weather permitting, of course). The general plan (again...weather permitting) is to do a little car-camping as I travel east along the Icelandic south coast on Route 1 from Reykjavik to Hofn and back, stopping frequently along the way to make images. On my journey I hope to finally visit and photograph Jokulsarlon Beach and glacial lagoon. I also hope to see the northern lights. On my last visit to Iceland in October, the skies never cleared enough for the aurora to be visible. During my upcoming trip I should have three good opportunities to see and photograph the northern lights at some epic locations - as long as there is a break in the clouds (fingers crossed). It's looking like I may be able to do some horse-back riding and spend some time on the Snaefellsness Peninsula again as well. Needless to say, I'm beyond excited!

Packing List for Iceland (Winter Photography)

Because I've been to the land of fire and ice twice already during cold months, I have a good idea of what I need to pack as well as what I don't. Layering is important. Lucky for me, I live in a climate very similar to Iceland's, so I didn't have to run to the local outfitter and drop a bunch of dough on new gear that'll only be used on this trip. Much of the clothing I'll need, I already have. (That isn't to say I didn't hit up the post-winter sales at my local outdoor gear stores, however....full disclosure.)

The key to surviving wet, windy, and cold winter weather is to layer clothing. Being able to remove clothing when necessary is just as important as bundling. Getting sweaty leads to getting cold and can cause hypothermia. It is better to be a little chilly and dry than cold and damp. Iceland is constantly windy and it precipitates almost daily year-round. The clothing I'm packing must be made of durable water resistant (if not waterproof) and breathable moisture wicking material (not cotton). I'll require a base layer (long thermal undies and thermal top layer), mid-layer (fleece, wool, thermal pullover or soft-shell jacket), and an outer layer (waterproof, windproof, breathable, and made of durable fabric). I'll also need a hat, gloves, wool socks (they insulate even when wet), and sturdy waterproof hiking boots.

I typically travel as light as possible and have to make sacrifices to save weight as well as money on budget airlines. Fortunately, I have one piece of checked luggage included in my ticket price in addition to a normal sized carry on. I'm taking full advantage of that so I can have every piece of photo equipment that I could possibley need. For the detailed post about all of my camera gear, click here. Without rambling further, here is my packing list for a week in Iceland:

Camera Gear:

(All my camera gear will be taken onto the plane, except the Gitzo tripod and multi-tool, which will go into my checked luggage. Lenses will be wrapped in Domke Gear Wraps for extra padding.)

Clothing:

  • Base-layers: Thermal Underwear (2), Thermal Base-layer Long-Sleeve Tees (2)

  • Mid-layers: Arc'teryx Fleece Pullover, Sherpa Adventure Gear Pullover

  • Extra layer: Columbia Water-Resistant Fleece Soft Shell

  • Outer layer: Columbia Water Proof Rain Jacket

  • Pants: Kuhl Hiking Pants (2), Mountain Hardwear Fleece-Lined Waterproof Pants (1), Thin Rain Pants (1), Jeans or Comfortable Travel Pants for the Plane (1)

  • Wool Socks (5 pairs), Regular Socks (2)

  • Wool Hat

  • Insulated Gloves for Low Temps

  • Regular T-Shirts (3), Button Shirts (2)

  • Merrell Waterproof Hiking Boots With Vibram Soles, Rubber Steel-Toe Rain-Boots (for photographing on beaches and near waterfalls)

  • Yak Trax (for added traction while walking in the snow)

Miscellaneous Gear / Accessories:

  • Map of Iceland (with locations marked)

  • Marmot 30 Degree Sleeping Bag

  • Petzl Tikka Head lamp (for hiking and northern lights photography)

  • Extra Glasses & Case

  • Cell Phone and Charger

  • U.S. to European Power Adaptor & Car Charger (for charging batteries while car camping)

  • MSR Camp Towel

  • Toiletries (minimal - no razors or hipster hair and beard products...just toothbrush, paste, and deodorant)

  • Passport, wallet, and copies of ID's

  • Food and water for the Road-Trip

For the Flight:

Like I said, I typically try to travel as light as possible, but my minimalist approach has been thrown out the window for this particular adventure. Normally, I take only one backpack, which contains only essential camera gear, a small travel tripod, and only the clothing I can't do without. Iceland in Winter requires more of everything: more layers, more shoes, more than one camera body, and a larger tripod. My next trip (after Iceland Part III) will allow me to return to my minimalist style of travel packing, but I'll announce the when and where for that trip later. Thanks for reading and happy travels! 

Pin this article to your travel board by clicking the icon on the image below!

Packing List for ICELAND (Winter Photography)

( Check out my article on How To Afford To Travel! )

Travel Tripod Review: Sirui T-025x Carbon Fiber Tripod with C-10 Ball Head

Sunrise in Thingvellir National Park, Iceland. Image made using the Sirui T-025x Tripod with C-10 ball-head.

Sunrise in Thingvellir National Park, Iceland. Image made using the Sirui T-025x Tripod with C-10 ball-head.

Until fairly recently, the options for reliable and affordable lightweight travel-tripods were slim, especially if you needed one to support a full-frame DSLR and lens. The Sirui T-025x Carbon Fiber Tripod with C-10 Ball Head is a breath of fresh air. It supports the weight I need in a very lightweight, sturdy, and compact package. It is also the perfect travel tripod for mirrorless shooters.

Sirui T-025x Carbon Fiber Tripod, C-10 Ball Head, Hex Key, Manuals, and Carrying Case (which doubles as a small backpack).

Sirui T-025x Carbon Fiber Tripod, C-10 Ball Head, Hex Key, Manuals, and Carrying Case (which doubles as a small backpack).

For years I had to put up with sub-par stainless steel or aluminum tripods made by discount brands when weight and size were an issue. This was because the few companies that offered “travel tripods” charged as much for them as for full-sized ones – upwards of $700. My main tripod is a relatively large Gitzo Mountaineer Series 2. I’ve used multiple heads on it over the years and have settled with a Manfrotto Pan-Head/Ball-Head that works fine. This set up supports a lot more weight than I have to put on it and has thrived through several drops over years of outdoor photography. The only issue is its size. Its minimum length is 24.5 inches (30 inches with the head attached). It’s perfect for wildlife and landscape situations, and not that much of a burden on long hikes, but, when it comes to international travel on budget airlines that often have strict size/weight restrictions, the Gitzo wont fit in any of my over-head approved bags. I do not like to check luggage, especially camera equipment, unless absolutely necessary.

I came across Sirui tripods at a small camera shop in Reykjavik in 2015. Never heard of the brand before, but they seemed sturdy and looked a lot like my Gitzo. I was using a small Benro Stainless Steel tripod (my first tripod purchased at the B&H NYC store years before) at the time that only supported 8 lbs (if that). I never liked it that much, but it was $80. The steel was cold, it didn’t absorb vibrations like carbon fiber does, and felt a bit flimsy. Before my next trip to Iceland in 2016, I decided it was time to get a more serious travel tripod and purchased the Sirui T-025x Carbon Fiber Tripod with C-10 Ball Head combo for $219. I haven’t looked back since!

Sirui T-025x Carbon Fiber Tripod with C-10 Ball Head Tech Specs:

Head Type Ball Head
Quick Release Arca-style
Material Carbon Fiber
Head Attachment Fitting 1/4'-20
Leg Sections 5
Leg Tube Diameters Maximum: 0.87" / 2.20cm, Minimum: 0.4" / 1.0cm
Leg Lock Type Twist
Independent Leg Spread Yes
Spiked/Retractable Feet No
Center Column Type Removable
Center Column Sections 2
Bubble Level No
Load Capacity 13.2lbs / 5.98kg
Folded Length 11.8" / 29.97cm
Height Maximum: 54.5" / 138.43cm, Maximum (w/o Column Extended): 48.6" / 123.44cm, Minimum: 10.2" / 25.90cm, Retracted: 18.9" / 48cm
Weight 1.54lbs / 0.7kg

First Impressions:

When my new Sirui arrived, I was taken aback by how small it actually was. It weights only 1.5 lbs, which is perfect for travel and folded to under a foot. The last of the five leg sections wasn’t much thicker than a pencil! I thought, “How could this possibly support 13 lbs?” After popping my D600 and 18-35G lens on it (a very light set up already), I had no more reservations. It was solid. The ball-head operated smoothly and locked tightly in whatever direction I tilted it in- up or down. Then, I decided to test it with my D600 and 70-200 f2.8 VR (a much heavier combo) and was surprised at how well this little tripod held it. When fully extended with the two-section center-column, the 70-200 combo was a bit top heavy and the ball-head awkward to use. I would never shoot like that with this particular tripod. But for landscapes, if the center column is removed, the set up is much sturdier. I’m not a fan of center columns and it was important to me that my new travel tripod would allow me to remove it. I’ve never used the center column on my Gitzo. Even though the Sirui is much shorter, only extending to my chest level, without the center column, I still prefer not using it. Besides, the best compositions are rarely at eye-level anyway.

Sirui T-025X

Sirui T-025X

Sirui C-10 Ball Head

Sirui C-10 Ball Head

Pros:

 -       Compact and very light, perfect for travel and long hikes when weight matters
-       Supports up to 13.2 lbs, easily supports a DSLR and lens no larger than a 70-200mm f2.8
-       Carbon fiber construction with twist-locking leg sections
-       Well-made
-       Ball-head is fluid and smooth in operation, locks into place securely
-       6 year manufacturer warranty
-       Removable Center Column
-       Ability to lower camera to near ground level
-       Arca-style release plate
-       Foam grips on legs
-       Nifty carabiner included for attaching extra weight underneath for more support
-       Costs less than any other decent carbon fiber travel tripod on the market as of this writing

Cons:

 -       Relatively short without center column
-       It would be nice to have 4 leg sections instead of 5 for slightly thicker sections (though that would make it longer)
-       No built-in bubble level
-       Head is sometimes difficult to install after center column is removed
-       Little rubber feet cannot be replaced and are not removable

The small ball-head plate is attached to camera using a hex key (two included) or by using a coin.

The small ball-head plate is attached to camera using a hex key (two included) or by using a coin.

w/ Nikon F100 attached

w/ Nikon F100 attached

About Sirui:

 Sirui (pronounced “sue-ray”) is a Chinese company that has been around for about a decade. I typically try to avoid Chinese-made photography products due to their reputation for shoddy workmanship of mass-produced and poorly engineered knock-offs. Japan is usually where the good stuff is made. Sirui is trying to change that preconception by producing well-made products with Japanese-quality engineering and backing their products with generous warranties. Sirui tripods come with 6 year warranty, not some measly 30-day to 1 year limited warranty like most companies. You can really get a sense of their attention to detail when using one of their tripods. Sirui doesn’t only make small travel tripods either, they have a full-range of options in various sizes.

Fully extended without center column (from above - fully extended without center column comes up to my chest and I am 5' 11" tall).

Fully extended without center column (from above - fully extended without center column comes up to my chest and I am 5' 11" tall).

Conclusions:

 If you’ve read my gear post, you’ll remember that I raved about this little tripod after using it in Iceland last October. It allowed me to get into narrow places that my large Gitzo tripod would have never fit into and got out of my way quickly when it wasn’t needed. It also allowed me to carry only one camera backpack on the plane and not have to separate from any my gear. The Sirui fit perfectly and discreetly into the water-bottle pouch on the side of my Lowepro Photo Sport Pro 30L AW. As a travel photographer, especially one focused on the great outdoors, it is essential that I travel light. The Sirui T-025x Carbon Fiber Tripod with C-10 Ball Head combo helps me do that. For even more technical details and features on this tripod, visit Sirui's official website.

Me using the Sirui T-025x Carbon Fiber Tripod with C-10 Ball Head in Iceland (a little over half-way extended without center column).

Me using the Sirui T-025x Carbon Fiber Tripod with C-10 Ball Head in Iceland (a little over half-way extended without center column).

I recommend purchasing this item from B&H PhotoAmazon, or Ebay


If you enjoyed this article and would like to receive news, updates, and exclusive content reserved only for email subscribers, please sign up by clicking here. Thank you. - Jon


* I am not affiliated with Sirui and this is not sponsored content.